Profound hypothermic circulatory arrest and profound hypothermia with continuous low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass are used to facilitate repair of complex congenital heart lesions. Extended periods of profound hypothermic arrest may impair cerebral function and metabolism and produce ischemic brain injury. Low-flow bypass has been advocated as preferable to profound hypothermic arrest with respect to neurologic outcome as it maintains continuous cerebral circulation during repair of heart defects, Several studies have suggested that low-flow bypass produces equal degrees of cerebral injury as corresponding periods of circulatory arrest. Transcranial Doppler sonography has enabled the noninvasive study of cerebral perfusion during operations using either circulatory arrest or low-flow bypass. Although these studies have demonstrated the presence of cerebral perfusion at low perfusion pressures, evidence exists to suggest that cerebral perfusion abruptly ceases at cerebral perfusion pressures of 7 to 9 mm Hg and is unrelated to pump flow rate. Transcranial Doppler sonography is a useful tool for monitoring cerebral perfusion during low-flow bypass, and future studies with this modality may help to develop improved modes of cerebral protection during repair of complex congenital heart lesions. © 1993.
Burrows, F. A. (1993). Transcranial Doppler monitoring of cerebral perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 56(6), 1482–1484. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-4975(93)90735-Z