Transesophageal echocardiography with a single plane (transverse axis), dedicated pediatric probe was performed prospectively in 25 anesthetized children undergoing routine cardiac catheterization or intracardiac surgery, to assess the potential role of this technique in the initial diagnosis, perioperative management and postoperative follow-up of children with congenital heart disease. The group ranged in age from 1 year to 14.8 years (mean 6.1) and weight from 6.5 to 52 kg (mean 22.4). Studies were successful in all patients and no complications were encountered. The results of the transesophageal studies (combined imaging, color flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler sampling) were correlated both with the results of prior precordial studies and the information obtained at cardiac catheterizatton. Transesophageal echocardiography provided a more detailed evaluation of the morphology and function of systemic and pulmonary venous return, the atria, interatria) baffles, atrioventricular valves and the left ventricular outflow tract. Additional information was obtained in 15 patients (60%). Problem areas for single plane transesophageal imaging were the apical interventricular septum, the right ventricular outflow tract and the left pulmonary artery. The intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography allowed assessment of the surgical repair and monitoring of ventricular function and volume status while the patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Transesophageal echocardiography in pediatric patients is of additional value in three main areas: 1) toe precise morphologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease, 2) perioperative monitoring, and 3) postsurgical follow-up. © 1990.
Stümper, O. F. W., Elzenga, N. J., Hess, J., & Sutherland, G. R. (1990). Transesophageal echocardiography in children with congenital heart disease: An initial experience. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 16(2), 433–441. https://doi.org/10.1016/0735-1097(90)90598-J