Gene expression, determined by micro-array analysis, and left ventricular (LV) remodeling associated with the transition to systolic heart failure (HF) were examined in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). By combining transcript and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of the LV with assessment of function and structure in age-matched SHR with and without HF, we aimed to better understand the molecular events underlying the onset of hypertensive HF. Failing hearts demonstrated depressed LV ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure, and LV papillary muscle force while LV end-diastolic and systolic volume and ventricular mass increased. 1431 transcripts were differentially expressed between failing and non-failing animals. GSEA identified multiple enriched gene sets, including those involving inflammation, oxidative stress, cell degradation and cell death, as well as TGF-β and insulin signaling pathways. Our findings support the concept that these pathways and mechanisms may contribute to deterioration of cardiac function and remodeling associated with hypertensive HF.
Brooks, W. W., Shen, S. S., Conrad, C. H., Goldstein, R. H., & Bing, O. H. L. (2010). Transition from compensated hypertrophy to systolic heart failure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: Structure, function, and transcript analysis. Genomics, 95(2), 84–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2009.12.002