Treatment outcomes of childhood tuberculosis in Addis Ababa: A five-year retrospective analysis

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Abstract

BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) kills one child every 5 min. Childhood TB is given low priority in most national health programmes particularly in TB-endemic areas. TB among children is an indicator of a recent transmission of the disease in the community. Treatment outcome results serve as a proxy of the quality of treatment provided by a health care system. In Ethiopia, data on treatment outcomes of childhood TB are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the treatment outcomes of childhood TB in a hospital setting in Addis Ababa. METHODS The study was conducted during June to August 2014. The data of 491 children treated for TB in Zewditu Memorial Hospital during a 5 year (2009-2013) was analysed. TB was diagnosed using standard methods. Demographic and clinical data including type of TB, TB-HIV co-infection and treatment outcomes were collected from registry of the TB clinic. Treatment outcome definitions are used according to the World Health Organization. RESULTS Of the 491 children, 272(55.4 %) were females, 107(21.8 %) were under 5 year old, 454(92.5 %) of them were new cases. The types of TB were extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) 243(49.5 %) and 248(50.5 %) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Of the PTB cases, 42(16.9 %) were sputum smear positive. Of the 291 children tested for HIV, 82(28.2 %) were positive. The overall treatment success rate was 420(85.5 %) and the poor treatment outcome was 71(14.5 %). Of the children with poor treatment outcome, 9(1.8 %) died, 3(0.6 %) defaulted from treatment, 2(0.4 %) were treatment failure and 55(11.2 %) were transferred out. Males and females had similar treatment success rates of 85.8 % and 85.3 %, respectively. Infants under one year had significantly lower treatment success rate of 72.7 % compared to those above 1 years of age of 86.5 % (P < 0.001). Treatment success rate ranged from 78.0 to 92.6 % during the study period. Associated factors for treatment outcome were age above 5 years (AOR = 0.59, 95 % CI: 0.62-0.97) and seropositive for HIV infection (AOR = 6.66, 95 % CI: 3.07-14.47). CONCLUSIONS The treatment success rate in this study is 85.5 %. The outcome of treatment varied with age, and presence of HIV infection. In order to the further improve of treatment success rate, continuous follow up with frequent support of patients during treatment course and strengthen the recording system are strongly recommend.

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Tilahun, G., & Gebre-Selassie, S. (2016). Treatment outcomes of childhood tuberculosis in Addis Ababa: A five-year retrospective analysis. BMC Public Health, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3193-8

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