OBJECTIVES Endoscopic injection of non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel is an increasingly recognized treatment option for vesicoureteral reflux. The procedure is minor compared with open surgery and, when successful, avoids the need for long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. We present data from 3 years of using non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel to treat children with vesicoureteral reflux. METHODS Pediatric patients aged 16 years with uncomplicated primary vesicoureteral reflux were recruited for endoscopic treatment with non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel. A follow- up voiding cystourethrogram was scheduled at 2 weeks after treatment, and vesicoureteral reflux resolution was defined as grade 0. Repeat non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel treatment was offered to patients with persistent vesicoureteral reflux. RESULTS Of 178 patients treated, 12 were lost to follow-up or yet to undergo post-treatment voiding cystourethrogram. The 166 remaining patients (efficacy population) had a mean age of 4.21 years (range: 0-16), and the median reflux grade was 3 (range: 1-5). Vesicoureteral reflux was resolved in 81.9% of patients and 86.4% of ureters after initial endoscopic treatment with non-animalstabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel. The overall reflux resolution rate for patients increased to 89.6% after a second treatment in 19 patients, and 90.2% after a third treatment in 1 patient. No adverse events were reported. Five patients underwent open ureteral reimplantation after failed endoscopic injections. CONCLUSIONS Endoscopic treatment with non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel is effective in a high proportion of children with vesicoureteral reflux and, in our opinion, should be considered as a first-line treatment option. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Hsieh, M. H., Madden-Fuentes, R. J., Lindsay, N. E., & Roth, D. R. (2010). Treatment of pediatric vesicoureteral reflux using endoscopic injection of hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel: Intermediate-term experience by a single surgeon. Urology, 76(1), 199–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2009.10.034