Trends in Vegetation Response to Drought in Sudano-Sahelian Part of Northern Nigeria

  • Fabeku B
  • Okogbue E
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Abstract

This\r<br />study was carried out to evaluate the drought occurrence and its implication on\r<br />vegetation cover over the Sudano-Sahelian zone of the Northern part of Nigeria.\r<br />Monthly mean Rainfall data for the period 40 years (1971-2010) were obtained\r<br />from Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for each of the meteorological\r<br />stations present and functioning in this region for climatic analysis.\r<br />Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was used to analyze drought occurrence\r<br />on a time scale of five (5) months that cover the period of raining season over\r<br />the study area. Also Satellite data over the selected part of the study area\r<br />for three different epochs, 1986, 2000 and 2005 were used for vegetation\r<br />response analysis. The SPI values were interpolated using Inverse Distance\r<br />Weighted (IDW) interpolation technique in ArcGIS 9.3 to generate Drought\r<br />Spatial Pattern Map for each selected modeled years. The vegetation response\r<br />indicators used are land cover maps and Greenness Index (GI) maps. Land cover\r<br />categories were classified into five levels: Dense Vegetation, less dense\r<br />Vegetation, Settlement/built up, Bare Surface and Water body. The results based\r<br />on the ground truth (rainfall) data show that many years of drought episode\r<br />were experienced over the study area. On the other hand, the prime indicators\r<br />(Land cover and GI maps) used in this study also depicts the changes that took\r<br />place over the study area in response to this climatic anomaly (drought) and it\r<br />could be noted that there was dramatic reduction in the occurrence towards the\r<br />end of the last two decade, 1990-1999, which simply indicated improvement in\r<br />rainfall even in 2000 and the later years.

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Fabeku, B. B., & Okogbue, E. C. (2014). Trends in Vegetation Response to Drought in Sudano-Sahelian Part of Northern Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 04(04), 569–588. https://doi.org/10.4236/acs.2014.44052

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