B-RafV600E oncogene mutation occurs most commonly in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and is associated with tumor initiation. However, a genetic modification by B-RafV600E in thyrocytes results in oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). In the present study, we explored the factors involved in the senescence overcome program in PTC. First of all, we observed down-regulation of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and up-regulation of dual specific phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) in the PTC with B-RafV600E mutation. DUSP6 overexpression in vitro induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 dephosphorylation and inhibited B-RafV600E–induced senescence in thyrocytes. Although DUSP6 protein was degraded by B-RafV600E–induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stabilized DUSP6 protein by increasing Mn superoxide dismutase expression and inhibited B-RafV600E–induced senescence. Although serum TSH was not increased, its receptor was markedly upregulated in PTC with B-RafV600E. Furthermore, TSH together with DUSP6 reactivated Ras signaling, resulted in activation of Ras/AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and stabilized c-Myc protein by inhibiting its degradation. These observations led us to conclude that increased TSH signaling overcomes OIS and is essential for B-RafV600E–induced papillary thyroid carcinogenesis.
Kim, Y. H., Choi, Y. W., Han, J. H., Lee, J., Soh, E. Y., Park, S. H., … Park, T. J. (2014). TSH Signaling Overcomes B-RafV600E–Induced Senescence in Papillary Thyroid Carcinogenesis through Regulation of DUSP6. Neoplasia (United States), 16(12), 1107–1120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2014.10.005