© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology. The purposes of this study were (i) to investigate the differences in effects between 160-kV low-energy and 6-MV high-energy X-rays, both by computational analysis and in vitro studies; (ii) to determine the effects of each on platinum-sensitized F98 rat glioma and murine B16 melanoma cells; and (iii) to describe the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo toxicity of a Pt(II) terpyridine platinum (Typ-Pt) complex. Simulations were performed using the Monte Carlo code Geant4 to determine enhancement in absorption of low- versus high-energy X-rays by Pt and to determine dose enhancement factors (DEFs) for a Pt-sensitized tumor phantom. In vitro studies were carried out using Typ-Pt and again with carboplatin due to the unexpected in vivo toxicity of Typ-Pt. Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assays. In agreement with computations and simulations, in vitro data showed up to one log unit reduction in surviving fractions (SFs) of cells treated with 1-4 μg/ml of Typ-Pt and irradiated with 160-kV versus 6-MV X-rays. DEFs showed radiosensitization in the 50-200 keV range, which fell to approximate unity at higher energies, suggesting marginal interactions at MeV energies. Cells sensitized with 1-5 or 7 μg/ml of carboplatin and then irradiated also showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in SFs. However, it was unlikely this was due to increased interactions. Theoretical and in vitro studies presented here demonstrated that the tumoricidal activity of low-energy X-rays was greater than that of high-energy X-rays against Pt-sensitized tumor cells. Determining whether radiosensitization is a function of increased interactions will require additional studies.
Lim, S. N., Pradhan, A. K., Barth, R. F., Nahar, S. N., Nakkula, R. J., Yang, W., … Mo, X. (2014). Tumoricidal activity of low-energy 160-KV versus 6-MV X-rays against platinum-sensitized F98 glioma cells. Journal of Radiation Research, 56(1), 77–89. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rru084