Here, we show a new illusion of depth induced by psychophysical adaptation to dynamic random-dot stereograms (RDS) that are interocularly anticorrelated (i.e., in which the images for the two eyes have reversed contrast polarity with each other). After prolonged viewing of anticorrelated RDS, the presentation of uncorrelated RDS (i.e., in which two images are mutually independent random-dot patterns) produces the sensation of depth, although both anticorrelated and uncorrelated RDSs are perceptually rivalrous with no consistent depth by themselves. Contrary to other aftereffects demonstrated in a number of visual dimensions, including motion, orientation, and disparity, this illusion results from unconscious adaptation; observers are not aware of what they are being adapted to during the process of adaptation. We further demonstrate that this illusion can be predicted from the simulated responses of disparity-selective neurons based on a local filtering model. Model simulations indicate that the inspection of anticorrelated RDS causes the adaptation of all disparity detectors except one sensitive to its disparity; therefore, those selectively unadapted detectors show relatively strong activation in response to the subsequent presentation of uncorrelated RDS and produce depth perception. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayashi, R., Miyawaki, Y., Maeda, T., & Tachi, S. (2003). Unconscious adaptation: A new illusion of depth induced by stimulus features without depth. Vision Research, 43(26), 2773–2782. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2003.07.002