Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30-90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60-90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male-and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls ( T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male- typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male- typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male- specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences.
Jia, T., & Ji, Z. (2017). Understanding the Functionality of Human Activity Hotspots from Their Scaling Pattern Using Trajectory Data. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 6(11), 341. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi6110341