Streptococcus pneumoniae is an uncommon etiologic organism in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Historically, severe S. pneumoniae-associated HUS usually has a poor clinical outcome. The clinical manifestations of marked jaundice and hepatic dysfunction in this form of HUS are extremely rare. We report a 10-month-old female infant with S. pneumoniae-associated HUS who had the unusual manifestation of severely elevated conjugated bilirubin and hepatic transaminases. Screening for viral hepatitis was negative, and evidence of biliary obstruction and hepatotoxic drug exposure was also absent. The patient was treated with antihypertensive agents for 2.5 months and required peritoneal dialysis for a period of 26 days. Hepatic function returned to normal on the 8th day of hospitalization. Renal function was mildly impaired at 1-year follow-up. Our report suggests that severe conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is a rare manifestation of S. pneumoniae-associated HUS in children. It is important for pediatricians that pneumococcal infection with severe hematologic and renal disorders should be investigated for evidence of S. pneumoniae-associated HUS.
Chen, J.-P., Chen, S.-M., & Sheu, J.-N. (2009). Unusual Manifestation of Severe Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia in an Infant with Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 106(2), S17–S22. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0929-6646(09)60347-8