An unusual presentation of 46,xy pure gonadal dysgenesis: Spontaneous breast development and menstruation

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Abstract

© Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology, Published by Galenos Publishing. 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is characterized by normal female genitalia at birth. It usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and amenorrhea. Rarely, patients can present with spontaneous breast development and/or menstruation. A fifteen-year-old girl presented to our clinic with the complaint of primary amenorrhea. On physical examination, her external genitals were completely female. Breast development and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner stage V. Hormonal evaluation revealed a hypergonadotropic state despite a normal estrogen level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Pelvic ultrasonography showed small gonads and a normal sized uterus for age. SRY gene expression was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Direct sequencing on genomic DNA did not reveal a mutation in the SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes. After the diagnosis of Swyer syndrome was made, the patient started to have spontaneous menstrual cycles and therefore failed to attend her follow-up visits. After nine months, the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy. Frozen examination of multiple biopsies from gonad tissues revealed gonadoblastoma. With this report, we emphasize the importance of performing karyotype analysis, which is diagnostic for Swyer syndrome, in all cases with primary or secondary amenorrhea even in the presence of normal breast development. We also suggest that normal pubertal development in patients with Swyer syndrome may be associated with the presence of a hormonally active tumor.

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Çatlı, G., Alparslan, C., Şule Can, P., Akbay, S., Kelekçi, S., Atik, T., … Dündar, B. N. (2015). An unusual presentation of 46,xy pure gonadal dysgenesis: Spontaneous breast development and menstruation. JCRPE Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology, 7(2), 159–162. https://doi.org/10.4274/jcrpe.1919

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