Update on Exercise and Weight Control

  • Doucet É
  • King N
  • Levine J
  • et al.
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Abstract

Recent analyses of population data reveal that obesity rates continue to rise and are projected to reach unprece-dented levels over the next decade [1]. Despite concerted efforts to impede obesity progression, as of today, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies remain at best partially successful endeavours. Regardless of the observation that weight loss strategies can produce significant weight loss [2] and substantial improvements of the determinants of the metabolic risk profile [3, 4], it is clear that actual weight loss tends to be lower than the anticipated weight loss, and most individuals who achieve weight loss will likely regain some weight [5] and even overshoot [6] their preintervention body weight. As such, an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to lower than expected weight loss and poor weight maintenance would improve the effectiveness of weight loss interventions. Increasing physical activity participation is frequently recommended as a method of improving weight manage-ment for its recognized ability to positively impact metabolic [7] and psychological health [8–10]. Despite these valuable outcomes, weight loss is often much less than expected, when exercise is employed as the sole means of intervention [11] at least as far as effectiveness is concerned. This sug-gests that, amongst other things, compensatory responses (i.e., increased energy intake and/or reduced nonstructured physical activity) occur which undermine the weight loss. It is possible that these compensatory responses are driven at least in part by the observations that weight loss and exercise increase appetite and the reinforcing value of foods [12, 13] and that exercise has also been shown to decrease nonexercise energy expenditure [14]. Exercise can also lead to beneficial changes in ectopic fat storage even in the absence of major changes in body weight [15], an outcome that may be easily overlooked with traditional markers of weight loss success. In this special issue we sought papers related to exercise-induced weight loss with a particular emphasis on the effects of exercise on ectopic fat mobilization, non-exercise activity thermogenesis, and appetite regulation. This special issue contains 14 original manuscripts and 5 review articles that cover a wide array of methodologies, populations, training modalities but that all share the common feature of dealing with different aspects of physical activity/exercise and weight management. Five comprehensive reviews appear in this special issue. In the paper by B. Strasser and W. Schobersberger " Evidence for resistance training as a treatment therapy in obesity " , clear recommendations on the use of resistance training for the treatment of obesity were derived from available literature. J. Nantel et al. present in " Physical activity and obesity: biomechanical and physiological key concepts " an interesting overview of the biomechanical considerations related to physical activity and obesity whereas the paper by S. H. Boutcher " High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss " provides arguments for increasing exercise intensity to improve the effects of exercise on fat mobilization and metabolic health. The fourth review article by J. P. Chaput et al. " Physical activity plays an important role in body weight regulation " presents a series of studies that provide evidence

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APA

Doucet, É., King, N., Levine, J. A., & Ross, R. (2011). Update on Exercise and Weight Control. Journal of Obesity, 2011, 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/358205

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