Breast arterial calcium (BAC) has been suggested as a marker and predictor of cardiovascular risk and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, an association between BAC and these cardiovascular end points has not been fully elucidated in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Consecutive patients undergoing mammography and cardiac catheterization within a 36-month period were retrospectively evaluated through chart review. Cardiac catheterization films and mammograms from 94 patients were independently reviewed for the presence of CAD and BAC, respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors, history of revascularization, and history of myocardial infarction were compared between women with and without BAC. BAC was more prevalent in older women (mean age 69 ± 10 vs 63 ± 11 years, p = 0.02). Aside from an inverse correlation with smoking, there was no difference in the presence of CAD or cardiovascular risk factors between patients with and without BAC. Patients with BAC had a lesser history of acute myocardial infarction (21% vs 41%, p <0.05) and were less likely to undergo revascularization (23% vs 43%, p <0.05). In conclusion, BAC was not positively associated with cardiovascular risk factors, documented CAD, or acute cardiovascular events, suggesting that the presence of BAC as determined by mammography is not a useful predictor of CAD in intermediate- to high-risk patients. © 2010.
Penugonda, N., Billecke, S. S., Yerkey, M. W., Rebner, M., & Marcovitz, P. A. (2010). Usefulness of Breast Arterial Calcium Detected on Mammography for Predicting Coronary Artery Disease or Cardiovascular Events in Women With Angina Pectoris and/or Positive Stress Tests. American Journal of Cardiology, 105(3), 359–361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.09.039