Usefulness of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for screening of anti HIV antibodies in urinary specimens: A comparative analysis

  • A.K. S
  • A. N
  • P. R
  • et al.
ISSN: 0377-1237
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Background: Standard HIV testing is done using serum or plasma. FDA approved ELISA to screen urine for IgG antibodies to HIV-1 in 1996. It is a simple, noninvasive test and is appropriate for developing countries where health care personnel may not be professionally trained or where clean needles for drawing blood may not always be available. Methods: 436 individuals with high-risk behavior and strong clinical suspicion of HIV infection were screened for IgG antibodies to HIV-1 in urine by ELISA. Urine HIV testing was performed by enzyme immunoassay, at the ongoing Voluntary Confidential Counseling and Testing Center (VCCTC) at a large tertiary care microbiology lab. The individuals enrolled for the study had high-risk exposure to the virus and majorities were from a state with a high incidence of HIV infection. In all individuals, both serum and urine were tested for IgG antibodies to HIV-1. Results: Overall, 135 individuals (30.96%) were HIV-positive, of whom 96 (71%) had never previously tested positive; 87% of those who tested positive received their results, and most were referred for medical care. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of HIV-1 urine ELISA test kit were determined. Sensitivity was found to be 89.6%; 95% CI [82.9e94.0], specificity 97.3%; 95% CI [94.6e98.8], positive predictive value 93.8%; 95% CI [87.8e97.1] and negative predictive value 95.4%; 95% CI [92.3e97.4]. Conclusion: Efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the urine-based screening for HIV-1 test kits were excellent as compared to the reference test. (copyright) 2013, Armed Forces Medical Services (AFMS). All rights reserved.




A.K., S., A., N., P., R., & S., P. (2014). Usefulness of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for screening of anti HIV antibodies in urinary specimens: A comparative analysis. Medical Journal Armed Forces India, 70(3), 211–214. Retrieved from

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