Statistical analyses of data from a classroom-based study illustrate the need to account for intra-class clustering in studies involving schools, classrooms, and other higher order units of analysis. Students were clustered in homerooms that were assigned to intervention and comparison conditions. Standard multiple linear regression analysis yielded a significant group effect but incorrectly ignored intra-cluster response correlations. A multilevel model appropriately accounting for the dependency among responses in the same cluster yielded a nonsignificant group effect. Implications for the analysis of intervention research data are discussed.
Nash, J., Kupper, L. L., & Fraser, M. (2004). Using Multilevel Statistical Models in Social Work Intervention Research. Journal of Social Service Research, 30(3), 35–54. https://doi.org/10.1300/J079v30n03_03