Background: The 14-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) Version 1.4 is a reliable and valid instrument to assess patients' satisfaction with medication, providing scores on four scales - side effects, effectiveness, convenience and global satisfaction. In naturalistic studies, administering the TSQM with the side effects domain could provoke the physician to assess the presence or absence of adverse events in a way that is clinically atypical, carrying the potential to interfere with routine medical care. As a result, an abbreviated 9-item TSQM (TSQM-9), derived from the TSQM Version 1.4 but without the five items of the side effects domain was created. In this study, an interactive voice response system (IVRS)-administered TSQM-9 was psychometrically evaluated among patients taking antihypertensive medication. Methods: A total of 3,387 subjects were invited to participate in the study from an online panel who self-reported taking a prescribed antihypertensive medication. The subjects were asked to complete the IVRS-administered TSQM-9 at the start of the study, along with the modified Morisky scale, and again within 7 to 14 days. Standard psychometric analyses were conducted; including Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients, structural equation modeling, Spearman correlation coefficients and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: A total of 396 subjects completed all the study procedures. Approximately 50% subjects were male with a good racial/ethnic mix: 58.3% white, 18.9% black, 17.7% Hispanic and 5.1% either Asian or other. There was evidence of construct validity of the TSQM-9 based on the structural equation modeling findings of the observed data fitting the Decisional Balance Model of Treatment Satisfaction even without the side effects domain. TSQM-9 domains had high internal consistency as evident from Cronbach's alpha values of 0.84 and greater. TSQM-9 domains also demonstrated good test-retest reliability with high intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.70. As expected, the TSQM-9 domains were able to differentiate between individuals who were low, medium and high compliers of medication, with moderate to high effect sizes. There was evidence of convergent validity with significant correlations with the medication adherence scale. Conclusion: The IVRS-administered TSQM-9 was found to be a reliable and valid measure to assess treatment satisfaction in naturalistic study designs, in which there is potential that the administration of the side effects domain of the TSQM would interfere with routine clinical care. © 2009 Bharmal et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Bharmal, M., Payne, K., Atkinson, M. J., Desrosiers, M. P., Morisky, D. E., & Gemmen, E. (2009). Validation of an abbreviated Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9) among patients on antihypertensive medications. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-7-36