Background: The aim of this study was firstly, to improve and validate a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) prefractionation method followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and secondly, using this strategy to investigate differences between the CSF proteome of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients and controls. From each subject three ml of CSF was prefractionated using liquid phase isoelectric focusing prior to 2-DE. Results: With respect to protein recovery and purification potential, ethanol precipitation of the prefractionated CSF sample was found superior, after testing several sample preparation methods. The reproducibility of prefractionated CSF analyzed on 2-D gels was comparable to direct 2-DE analysis of CSF. The protein spots on the prefractionated 2-D gels had an increased intensity, indicating a higher protein concentration, compared to direct 2-D gels. Prefractionated 2-DE analysis of FTD and control CSF showed that 26 protein spots were changed at least two fold. Using mass spectrometry, 13 of these protein spots were identified, including retinol-binding protein, Zn-α-2-glycoprotein, proapolipoproteinA1, β-2-microglobulin, transthyretin, albumin and alloalbumin. Conclusion: The results suggest that the prefractionated 2-DE method can be useful for enrichment of CSF proteins and may provide a new tool to investigate the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. This study confirmed reduced levels of retinol-binding protein and revealed some new biomarker candidates for FTD.
Hansson, S. F., Puchades, M., Blennow, K., Sjögren, M., & Davidsson, P. (2004). Validation of a prefractionation method followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis - Applied to cerebrospinal fluid proteins from frontotemporal dementia patients. Proteome Science, 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-5956-2-7