Coastal hypoxia is a problem that is predicted to increase rapidly in the future. At the same time we are facing rising atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations, which are increasing the <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> and acidity of coastal waters. These two drivers are well studied in isolation however; the coupling of low O<sub>2</sub> and pH is likely to provide a more significant respiratory challenge for slow moving and sessile invertebrates than is currently predicted. The Gullmar Fjord in Sweden is home to a range of habitats such as sand and mud flats, seagrass beds, exposed and protected shorelines, and rocky bottoms. Moreover, it has a history of both natural and anthropogenically enhanced hypoxia as well as North Sea upwelling, where salty water reaches the surface towards the end of summer and early autumn. A total of 11 species (Crustacean, Chordate, Echinoderm and Mollusc) of these ecosystems were exposed to four different treatments (high/low oxygen and low/high CO<sub>2</sub>; varying <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> of 450 and 1300&thinsp;ppm and O<sub>2</sub> concentrations of 2&ndash;3.5 and 9&ndash;10&thinsp;mg&thinsp;L<sup>&minus;1</sup>) and respiration measured after 3 and 6 days, respectively. This allows us to evaluate respiration responses of species of contrasting habitats and life-history strategies to single and multiple stressors. Results show that the responses of the respiration were highly species specific as we observed both synergetic as well as antagonistic responses, and neither phylum nor habitat explained trends in respiratory responses. Management plans should avoid the generalized assumption that combined stressors will results in multiplicative effects and focus attention on alleviating hypoxia in the region.
Fontanini, A., Steckbauer, A., Dupont, S., & Duarte, C. M. (2018). Variable metabolic responses of Skagerrak invertebrates to low O2 and high CO2 scenarios. Biogeosciences, 15(12), 3717–3729. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-3717-2018