Objectives. Flow variations can affect valve-area calculation in aortic stenosis and lead to inaccuracies in the evaluation of the stenosis. Knowing that transvalvular flow varies normally within one beat, we designed this study to assess the response of the valve to intrabeat variation of flow during systole. Results were compared with flow-derived measurements. Background. Technological improvements now allow us to evaluate aortic valve area directly by short axis planimetry. This offers the possibility to perform serial planimetries during one ejection phase and analyze the intrabeat dynamic behavior of the stenotic-aortic valve and compare these measurements with flow-derived measurements. Methods. Forty echocardiograms displaying different degrees of aortic stenosis were analyzed by frame-by- frame planimetry of the valve area from onset of opening to complete closure. Maximal-mean area, opening and closing rates and ejection times were obtained and compared with Doppler-derived data. Results. Valve area varied during ejection. Stenotic valves opened and closed more slowly than normals and remained maximally open for a shorter period. Mean area by Doppler data corresponded more closely to maximal than to mean-planimetered area. Duration of flow was shorter than valve opening in severely stenotic valves. Discrepancies between Doppler-derived and two-dimensional (2D) measurements decreased in less stenotic valves. Conclusions. Our observations reveal striking differences between the dynamics of normal and stenotic valves. Surprisingly, Doppler-derived mean-valve area correlated better with maximal- anatomic area than with mean-anatomic area in patients with aortic stenosis. Discrepancies between duration of flow and valve opening could explain this phenomenon.
Arsenault, M., Masani, N., Magni, G., Yao, J., Deras, L., & Pandian, N. (1998). Variation of anatomic valve area during ejection in patients with valvular aortic stenosis evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiographic planimetry: Comparison with traditional Doppler data. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 32(7), 1931–1937. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00460-4