OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effects of estrogen on vascular dilatory and other homeostatic functions potentially affected by nitric oxide (NO)-potentiating properties in type II diabetic post-menopausal women. BACKGROUND: There is a higher cardiovascular risk in diabetic women than in nondiabetic women. This would suggest that women with diabetes do not have the cardioprotection associated with estrogen. METHODS: We administered placebo or conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625 mg/day for 8 weeks, to 20 type II diabetic postmenopausal women in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, estrogen tended to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by 15 ± 23% (p = 0.007) and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels by 8 ± 16% (p = 0.034). Thus, the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol levels significantly decreased with estrogen, by 20 ± 24%, as compared with placebo (p = 0.001). Compared with placebo, estrogen tended to increase triglyceride levels by 16 ± 48% and lower glycosylated hemoglobin levels by 3 ± 13% (p = 0.295 and p = 0.199, respectively). However, estrogen did not significantly improve the percent flow-mediated dilatory response to hyperemia (17 ± 75% vs. placebo; p = 0.501). The statistical power to accept our observation was 81.5%. Compared with placebo, estrogen did not significantly change E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. Compared with placebo, estrogen tended to decrease tissue factor antigen and increase tissue factor activity levels by 7 ± 46% and 5 ± 34%, respectively (p = 0.321 and p = 0.117, respectively) and lower plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels by 16 ± 31% (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: The effects of estrogen on endothelial, vascular dilatory and other homeostatic functions were less apparent in type II diabetic postmenopausal women, despite the beneficial effects of estrogen on lipoprotein levels. © 2001 by the American College of Cardiology.
Koh, K. K., Kang, M. H., Jin, D. K., Lee, S. K., Ahn, J. Y., Hwang, H. Y., … Shin, E. K. (2001). Vascular effects of estrogen in type II diabetic postmenopausal women. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 38(5), 1409–1415. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01566-2