Very long term follow-up of cardiac resynchronization therapy: Clinical outcome and predictors of mortality

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Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves symptoms, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and survival in patients with heart failure and wide QRS, however, long term clinical outcome is unknown. Aims: To identify predictors of mortality and evaluate the effects of CRT after long term follow-up. Methods: Consecutive patients treated with CRT between 1997 and 2002 were included. We collected clinical information from patient files. Patients who were still alive underwent echocardiography and clinical evaluation. Results: We included 179 patients (median age 65.5 years, 144 male). Median follow-up for survival was 4.0 years. Mortality at one and five years was 15% and 53%, respectively. Predictors of mortality were, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), higher NYHA class and lower LVEF (< 22.5%) at baseline, and no improvement in NYHA class at early follow-up. NYHA class remained stable from early to long term follow-up after a median of 5.1 years. In patients with non-IHD median LVEF increased significantly from early to long term follow-up (39% vs. 50% p = 0.007). Conclusion: Predictors of mortality in patients with CRT are IHD, lower LVEF and higher NYHA class at baseline, and no symptomatic response to CRT. After 5 years follow-up, clinical effects are sustained, and in patients with non-IHD further improvements in LVEF are observed. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.




Kronborg, M. B., Mortensen, P. T., Kirkfeldt, R. E., & Nielsen, J. C. (2008). Very long term follow-up of cardiac resynchronization therapy: Clinical outcome and predictors of mortality. European Journal of Heart Failure, 10(8), 796–801.

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