Virulence factors of Escherichia coli are of two main types; those produced on the surface of the cell and those produced within the cell and then exported to the site of action. Those on the surface include different sorts of fimbriae that have a role in adhesion to the surface of host cells but may also have additional roles such as tissue invasion, biofilm formation or cytokine induction. The activities of cell wall components are discussed and several exported virulence factors are described that have anti host cell activities. Others virulence factors enable the bacteria to grow in an environment of iron restriction. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Emody, L., Kerényi, M., & Nagy, G. (2003). Virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 22(SUPPL. 2). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-8579(03)00236-X