Since the beginning of the HIV burden, Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL)/HIV co-infection has been diagnosed not only in areas where VL is endemic (Latin America, India, Asia, Southern Europe), but also in North America, were it is considered an opportunistic disease. Clinical presentation, diagnostic tests sensitivity and treatment response in this population differs from VL alone. Objectives: To evaluate factors related to an unfavorable outcome in patients with VL/HIV diagnosis in a reference center in northeast Brazil. Methods: Co-infected patients, diagnosed from 2010 to 2012, were included. Data from medical records were collected until one year after VL treatment completion. Results: Forty-two HIV-infected patients were included in the study. Anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were present in 95%, 70.7%, and 63.4%, respectively. Mean T CD4+ (LTCD4) lymphocyte count was 183 cells/dL. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was being used by 54.7% of cases. A favorable outcome was seen in 71.4% of cases. Recurrence of VL occurred in nine patients and deaths were secondary to infectious complications (3/42 patients). Very low LTCD4 count (<100 cells/dL) was the only independent variable associated with an unfavorable outcome in multivariate analysis (p= 0.03). Conclusion: Low LTCD4 count at presentation was associated with unfavorable outcome in VL/HIV patients.
Távora, L. G. F., Nogueira, M. B., & Gomes, S. T. (2015). Visceral Leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection in northeast Brazil: Evaluation of outcome. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 651–656. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2015.07.004