© 2015, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.Sprouting angiogenesis and capillary network formation are tissue scale phenomena. There are also sub-scale phenomena involved in angiogenesis including at the cellular and intracellular (molecular) scales. In this work, a multiscale model of angiogenesis spanning intracellular, cellular, and tissue scales is developed in detail. The key events that are considered at the tissue scale are formation of closed flow path (that is called loop in this article) and blood flow initiation in the loop. At the cellular scale, growth, migration, and anastomosis of endothelial cells (ECs) are important. At the intracellular scale, cell phenotype determination as well as alteration due to blood flow is included, having pivotal roles in the model. The main feature of the model is to obtain the physical behavior of a closed loop at the tissue scale, relying on the events at the cellular and intracellular scales, and not by imposing physical behavior upon it. Results show that, when blood flow is considered in the loop, the anastomosed sprouts stabilize and elongate. By contrast, when the loop is modeled without consideration of blood flow, the loop collapses. The results obtained in this work show that proper determination of EC phenotype is the key for its survival.
Bazmara, H., Soltani, M., Sefidgar, M., Bazargan, M., Naeenian, M. M., & Rahmim, A. (2015). The vital role of blood flow-induced proliferation and migration in capillary network formation in a multiscale model of angiogenesis. PLoS ONE, 10(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128878