Vitamin D Supplementation, Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Mirhosseini N
  • Rainsbury J
  • Kimball S
Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.


Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are associated with low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in observational studies; however, clinical trial findings are inconsistent. Objective: We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation and increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations on CVD risk factors in a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Design: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched for RCTs that evaluated vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes [blood pressure, parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL, respectively), triglycerides, peak wave velocity (PWV) and Augmentation Index (AI)] from 1992 through 2017. Meta-analysis was based on a random-effects model and inverse variance method to calculate standardized mean difference (SMD) as effect sizes, followed by a leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. Risk of publication bias was assessed using Cochrane checklist and Begg funnel plots. The systematic review is registered as CRD42015025346. Results: We identified 2341 studies from which 81 met inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SMD = -0.102 ± 0.04 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.20 to -0.03), diastolic blood pressure (SMD = -0.07 ± 0.03 mmHg, 95% CI, -0.14 to -0.006), serum PTH (SMD = -0.66 ± 0.08 ng/L, 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.49), hs-CRP (SMD = -0.20 ± 0.07 mg/L, 95% CI, -0.34 to -0.06), total cholesterol (SMD = -0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI, -0.25 to -0.04), LDL (SMD = -0.10 ± 0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.003), triglycerides (SMD = -0.12 ± 0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.003) and a significant increase in HDL (SMD = 0.09 ± 0.04 mmol/L, 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.17) with vitamin D supplementation. These findings remained significant in sensitivity analyses for blood pressure, lipid profile, serum PTH, and serum hs-CRP. There was no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on PWV (SMD = -0.20 ± 0.13 m/s, 95% CI, -0.46 to 0.06, p = 0.14) and AI (SMD = -0.09 ± 0.14%, 95% CI, -0.37 to 0.19, p = 0.52) for vitamin D supplemented groups. Conclusion: These findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation may act to protect against CVD through improving risk factors, including high blood pressure, elevated PTH, dyslipidemia, and inflammation.




Mirhosseini, N., Rainsbury, J., & Kimball, S. M. (2018). Vitamin D Supplementation, Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 5.

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free