Changes in the number, maturity and function of neutrophils, concomitant changes in plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites, and the increased susceptibility of cows to infectious diseases around parturition, led us to investigate the effect of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), acetoacetic acid (AcAc), hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HCAc) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (bPAG) on the proliferation of bovine bone marrow progenitor cells in methylcellulose in vitro cultures. Myeloid progenitors were stimulated with concanavalin A-stimulated leukocyte conditioned medium (LCM) and erythroid progenitors with erythropoetin in the presence of hemin. Erythroid and myeloid colonies were scored after five and seven days, respectively. BHBA and AcAc induced inhibitory effects on the proliferation of bovine bone marrow cells at concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mM. HCAc significantly inhibited growth of progenitors at concentrations of 10, 20, 50, and 100 ng/ml, and bPAG at concentrations of 2400 and 3000 ng/ml. The results of this study suggest that in the cow high concentrations of BHBA, AcAc, HCAc and bPAG, which can be reached in the circulation around calving, could alter the number of circulating neutrophils after parturition. This phenomenon might contribute to the increased susceptibility of dairy cows to environmental mastitis.
Hoeben, D., Burvenich, C., Massart-Leën, A. M., Lenjou, M., Nijs, G., Van Bockstaele, D., & Beckers, J. F. (1999). In vitro effect of ketone bodies, glucocorticosteroids and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein on cultures of bone marrow progenitor cells of cows and calves. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 68(2–4), 229–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2427(99)00031-8