The surface characteristics of an implant that influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include crystal structure and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon) nanobiocomposite coating on 316L stainless steel (SS) dental implants soaking in simulated body fluid. A novel NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15wt% of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 1h. The composite mixture was coated on SS implants using a plasma spray method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate surface morphology, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze phase composition and crystallinity (Xc). Further, calcium ion release was measured to evaluate the coated nanobiocomposite samples. The prepared NHA/zircon coating had a nanoscale morphological structure with a mean crystallite size of 30-40nm in diameter and a bone-like composition, which is similar to that of the biological apatite of a bone. For the prepared NHA powder, high bioactivity was observed owing to the formation of apatite crystals on its surface. Both minimum crystallinity (Xc=41.1%) and maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10wt% of zircon because of minimum Xc and maximum biodegradation of the coating sample.
Karamian, E., Kalantar Motamedi, M. R., Khandan, A., Soltani, P., & Maghsoudi, S. (2014). An in vitro evaluation of novel NHA/zircon plasma coating on 316L stainless steel dental implant. Progress in Natural Science: Materials International, 24(2), 150–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2014.04.001