The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), a highly conserved major mitochondrial outer membrane protein, plays crucial roles in energy metabolism and metabolite transport. However, knowledge about the roles of the VDAC family in plants is limited. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of VDAC1 in Arabidopsis and found that cold stress promoted the accumulation of VDAC1 transcripts in imbibed seeds and mature plants. Overexpression of VDAC1 reduced tolerance to cold stress in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis of VDAC1 T-DNA insertion mutant plants indicated that a vdac1 mutant line had faster germination kinetics under cold treatment and showed enhanced tolerance to freezing. The yeast two-hybrid system revealed that VDAC1 interacts with CBL1, a calcium sensor in plants. Like the vdac1, a cbl1 mutant also exhibited a higher seed germination rate. We conclude that both VDAC1 and CBL1 regulate cold stress responses during seed germination and plant development. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Li, Z. Y., Xu, Z. S., He, G. Y., Yang, G. X., Chen, M., Li, L. C., & Ma, Y. (2013). The voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (AtVDAC1) negatively regulates plant cold responses during Germination and Seedling Development in Arabidopsis and Interacts with calcium sensor CBL1. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14(1), 701–713. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14010701