Objectives To investigate if burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients have differing health perceptions, medication, and life experiences compared with controls and to examine the role of vulnerability factors and differentiate them from the presenting symptomology in patients with BMS. Study design A nonprobability convenience sample of patients presenting with BMS and age- and sex-matched controls were recruited from Queen's University, Belfast, King's College London, and Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess 9 aspects of their medical and social history, including early and past life experiences. The subjects completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess current distress. Results Participants with BMS had significantly higher experiences of adverse early life experiences compared with controls. They had statistically significantly higher mean scores for anxiety and depression compared with controls. A hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the characteristics of BMS included cancer phobia, gastro-intestinal problems, and chronic fatigue. Conclusion BMS is a complex disorder. People who experience adverse life experiences may become vulnerable to developing BMS in later life.
Lamey, P. J., Freeman, R., Eddie, S. A., Pankhurst, C., & Rees, T. (2005). Vulnerability and presenting symptoms in burning mouth syndrome. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, 99(1), 48–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2004.01.021