In this paper, potential natural gas and renewable natural gas supply pathways and natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been selected and evaluated with regards to well-to-wheel energy expended, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and regulated (air pollutant) emissions. The vehicles included in the evaluation are passenger cars, light-duty vehicles (LDVs), and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) for road-transport applications, and a short-range passenger vessel for maritime transport applications. The results show that, compared to conventional fuels, in both transport applications and for all vehicle classes, the use of compressed and liquefied natural gas has a 15–27% GHG emissions reduction effect per km travel. The effect becomes large, 81–211%, when compressed and liquefied renewable natural gas are used instead. The results are sensitive to the type and source of feedstock used, the type of vehicle engine, assumed methane leakage and methane slip, and the allocated energy and environmental digestate credits, in each pathway. In maritime applications, the use of liquefied natural gas and renewable natural gas instead of low sulfur marine fuels results in a 60–100% SOx and 90–96% PM emissions reduction. A 1% methane slip from a dedicated LNG passenger vessel results, on average, in 8.5% increase in net GHG emissions.
Hagos, D. A., & Ahlgren, E. O. (2018). Well-to-wheel assessment of natural gas vehicles and their fuel supply infrastructures – Perspectives on gas in transport in Denmark. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 65, 14–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2018.07.018