Worsening or ‘pseudo-worsening’ renal function? The prognostic value of hemoconcentration in patients admitted with acute heart failure

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Abstract

Introduction: Renal insufficiency, as evidenced by an increase in creatinine, is associated with higher mortality in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Conversely, hemoconcentration (HC) in AHF is associated with lower mortality, but can also cause an increase in creatinine. Our aim was to assess the prognosis of HC in patients hospitalized for AHF presenting with or without worsening renal function (WRF). Methods: A total of 618 consecutive patients admitted for AHF were included. WRF was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria and HC was defined as an elevation of hemoglobin during hospitalization compared to the admission value. Six-month all-cause mortality was analyzed. Results: The patients’ mean age was 79±11 years; 58% were women. Mortality at six months was 38% and 49% of patients had WRF. HC occurred in 38.9% of patients with WRF and was associated with improved survival (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.10-2.34; p=0.02) compared to WRF without HC. HC was associated with better survival in KDIGO stages 1 and 2 (HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.8; p=0.01). For patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD) with WRF in stages 1 and 2, HC was associated with significantly better survival (HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.2; p=0.01). Conclusion: In patients admitted for AHF without renal failure or CKD, WRF with HC is associated with a better prognosis, similar to that of patients without WRF, and should therefore be reclassified as ‘pseudo-WRF’.

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Martins, J. L., Santos, L., Faustino, A., Viana, J., & Santos, J. (2018). Worsening or ‘pseudo-worsening’ renal function? The prognostic value of hemoconcentration in patients admitted with acute heart failure. Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia, 37(7), 595–602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.repc.2017.10.015

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