Zika virus (ZIKV) has two lineages: African and Asian. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are thought to replicate initially in dendritic cells and then spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream. Risk for infection through blood transfusion, sexual practices and perinatal transmission exists. The possible routes of perinatal transmission are during delivery, breastfeeding and by close contact between the mother and her newborn. Also, mucocutaneous exposures to the virus by infected blood or monkey bite, organ transplantation or hemodialysis are the other routes of ZIKV transmission. There are two types of ZIKV infection; Zika fever and congenital infection. Clinical presentation of Zika fever varies from asymptomatic infections to a self-limiting febrile disease with low grade fever, conjunctivitis, maculopapular rash, headache, retro-orbital pain and arthritis/arthralgia with periarticular edema, myalgia, vertigo, vomiting and asthenia. This clinical feature could be mistaken for dengue or chikungunya fevers. Microcephaly is the most important and frequently reported clinical picture of suspected congenital Zika syndrome. Laboratory tests are needed for diagnosis of ZIKV infection, because there is no known pathognomonic clinical, biochemical or radiological features. RT-PCR is the most well-liked assay. Serum samples are tested by immunoglobulin G ELISA with ZIKV antigen. Samples are also tested by immunoglobulin M ELISA. There is no certified vaccine or therapeutic medication. In asymptomatic or uncomplicated patients, treatment is not necessary.
Jamali Moghadam, S. R., Bayrami, S., Jamali Moghadam, S., Golrokhi, R., Golsoorat Pahlaviani, F., & SeyedAlinaghi, S. A. (2016, December 1). Zika virus: A review of literature. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. Hainan Medical University. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.09.007