In loving memory of Asher Peres, we discuss a most important and influential paper written in 1935 by his thesis supervisor and mentor Nathan Rosen, together with Albert Einstein and Boris Podolsky. In that paper, the trio known as EPR questioned…
Mathematical Physics
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Choosing good problems is essential for being a good scientist. But what is a good problem, and how do you choose one? The subject is not usually discussed explicitly within our profession. Scientists are expected to be smart enough to figure it out…

Starting from first principles and general assumptions Newton's law of gravitation is shown to arise naturally and unavoidably in a theory in which space is emergent through a holographic scenario. Gravity is explained as an entropic force caused by…

The recent interest in aspects common to quantum information and condensed matter has prompted a prosperous activity at the border of these disciplines that were far distant until few years ago. Numerous interesting questions have been addressed so…

The entanglement of a pure state of a pair of quantum systems is defined as the entropy of either member of the pair. The entanglement of formation of a mixed state ρ is the minimum average entanglement of an ensemble of pure states that represents…

We review the theory of entanglement measures, concentrating mostly on the finite dimensional twoparty case. Topics covered include: singlecopy and asymptotic entanglement manipulation; the entanglement of formation; the entanglement cost; the…

Topological quantum computation has recently emerged as one of the most exciting approaches to constructing a faulttolerant quantum computer. The proposal relies on the existence of topological states of matter whose quasiparticle excitations are…

Decoherence is caused by the interaction with the environment. Environment monitors certain observables of the system, destroying interference between the pointer states corresponding to their eigenvalues. This leads to environmentinduced…

Two classically identical expressions for the mutual information generally differ when the systems involved are quantum. This difference defines the quantum discord. It can be used as a measure of the quantumness of correlations. Separability of the…

The aim of this book is to develop "from the ground up" many of the major, exciting, pre and postmillenium developments in the general area of study known as quantum Shannon theory. As such, we spend a significant amount of time on quantum…

I provide a pedagogical introduction to supersymmetry. The level of discussion is aimed at readers who are familiar with the Standard Model and quantum field theory, but who have had little or no prior exposure to supersymmetry. Topics covered…

We observe strong violation of Bells inequality in an EinsteinPodolskyRosentype experiment with independent observers. Our experiment definitely implements the ideas behind the wellknown work by Aspect et al. We for the first time fully enforce…

We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is…

The objective of this case study was to obtain some firsthand information about the functional consequences of a cosmetic tongue split operation for speech and tongue motility. One male patient who had performed the operation on himself was…

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of tricklebed reactors with detailed interstitial flow solvers has remained elusive mostly due to the extreme CPU and memory intensive constraints. Here, we developed a comprehensible and scalable CFD…

A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true…

We observe strong violation of Bells inequality in an EinsteinPodolskyRosentype experiment with independent observers. Our experiment definitely implements the ideas behind the wellknown work by Aspect et al. We for the first time fully enforce…

These notes give an elementary introduction to Lie groups, Lie algebras, and their representations. Designed to be accessible to graduate students in mathematics or physics, they have a minimum of prerequisites. Topics include definitions and…

Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is formulated here in a different way. It is, however, mathematically equivalent to the familiar formulation. In quantum mechanics the probability of an event which can happen in several different ways is the…

In these lecture notes, an introduction to superstring theory is presented. Classical strings, covariant and lightcone quantization, supersymmetric strings, anomaly cancelation, compactification, Tduality, supersymmetry breaking, and threshold…
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