1. Optimal test conditions for adenine nucleotide translocation in Candida utilis mitochondria are a standard medium, consisting of 0.63 M mannitol, 2 mM EDTA (or ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, EGTA), 10 mM morpholinopropane sulfonic acid (pH 6.8), and a temperature of 0 °C. 2. Adenine nucleotide translocation in C. utilis mitochondria is an exchange-diffusion process. The whole pool of internal adenine nucleotides is exchangeable, ADP being the most readily exchangeable nucleotide. The rate of mitochondrial ADP exchange, but not the Km value, depends on growth conditions. At 0 °C, the rate is about 3 to 4 nmoles ADP/min per mg protein for mitochondria obtained from yeast grown in the presence of 1.5% glucose; it rises to 11.5 nmoles when glucose is replaced by 3% ethanol in the growth medium. The Km value for ADP is 2 μM. The Q10 is about 2 between 0 and 20 °C. Among other exchangeable adenine nucleotides are ATP, dADP and the methylene and the hypophosphate analogues of ADP. Unlike mammalian mitochondria, C. utilis mitochondria are able to transport external UDP by a carboxyatractyloside-sensitive process. 3. Under conditions of oxidative phosphorylation (phosphate and substrate present in an aerated medium), added ADP is exchanged with internal ATP. A higher ATP/ADP ratio was found in the extramitochondrial space than in the intramito-chondrial space. The difference between the calculated phosphate potentials in the two spaces was 0.9-1.7 kcal/mole. 4. Atractyloside, carboxyatractyloside, bongkrekic acid and palmityl-CoA inhibit mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocation in C. utilis as they do in mammalian mitochondria, but 2 to 4 times less efficiently. The inhibition due to atractyloside or palmityl-CoA is competitive with respect to ADP whereas that due to bongkrekic acid and carboxyatractyloside is non-competitive. Carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside inhibitions are additive. The apparent Kd for the binding of [35S]-carboxyatractyloside and [14C]bongkrekic acid is 10-15 nM and the concentration of sites 0.4-0.6 nmole/mg protein in both cases. [35S]Carboxyatractyloside binding is competitively displaced by atractyloside and vice versa. 5. Binding of [14C]ADP has been carried out with mitochondria depleted of their endogenous adenine nucleotides by incubation with phosphate and Mg2+ at 20 °C. The amount of bound [14C]ADP which is atractyloside removable is 0.08-0.16 nmole/mg protein. 6. The rate of ADP transport is quite different in mitochondria isolated from C. utilis, according to whether it is grown on glucose, or on ethanol or in the presence of chloramphenicol; for instance, it decreases by 10 times when 3% ethanol in the growth medium is replaced by 10% glucose and by 5 times when chloramphenicol is added to the medium. These variations are accompanied by parallel variations in cytochrome aa3. The number of atractyloside-sensitive ADP binding sites is not modified by the above conditions of culture, nor the number of [35S]carboxyatractyloside binding sites. The affinity for ADP is apparently not significantly modified, nor the size of the endogenous adenine nucleotide pool. In contrast to glucose repression or chloramphenicol inhibition, semi-anaerobiosis in C. utilis lowers significantly the mitochondrial binding capacity for carboxyatractyloside. Strict anaerobiosis in S. cerevisiae results in a practical loss of the cytochrome oxidase activity, and also of the carboxyatractyloside and ADP binding capacity. Transition from anaerobiosis to aerobiosis restores the cytochrome oxidase activity and the ADP and carboxyatractyloside binding capacities. © 1973.
Lauquin, G., & Vignais, P. V. (1973). Adenine nucleotide translocation in yeast mitochondria. Effect of inhibitors of mitochondrial biogenesis on the ADP translocase. BBA - Bioenergetics, 305(3), 534–556. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2728(73)90074-1