Cellular and molecular mechanisms of allogeneic graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects include Th1 and Tc1 cell interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion, antigen-presenting cell (APC) IL-1-α and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion, and cytolytic effectors operating through perforin, fas and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathways. Because such mechanisms also contribute to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), separation of GVT effects from GVHD has proven problematic. Research advances in allograft T cell engineering and cytokine, vaccine and molecularly targeted therapy hold promise for improved harnessing of GVT effects. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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