The German Environmental Specimen Bank found that students suffering from diseases of the thyroid or the immune system had increased palladium urinary values compared to healthy individuals. Since the immunotoxic features of palladium are well known, there may be a causal relationship. Sources of palladium were identified as dental alloys, the chemical industry, oil- or coal-driven power plants and the consumption of meat products. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Helm, D. (2002). Association between palladium urinary concentrations and diseases of the thyroid and the immune system. Science of the Total Environment, 299(1–3), 247–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00274-7