Normal prostate cells and prostate cancer cells produce prostate-specific antigen (PSA): thus, it is frequently increased in non-malignant conditions such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Indeed, PSA is an excellent biomarker to monitor disease progression. The low diagnostic specificity of PSA leads to many false-positive and a large number of biopsies. These well-recognized limitations of PSA suggest that new prostate cancer biomarkers could play a useful role in reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.
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