At concentrations of 100 mM or higher the chemical nature of both the cation and anion in the background electrolyte (BGE) can be varied to manipulate the migration times of protonated aniline cations. Significant differences were noted with Li+, Na+and K+for capillary electrophoretic runs carried out at pH 3. However, much greater differences in migration times were observed at acidic pH values when the BGE contained protonated cations of aliphatic amines. Analyte migration became progressively slower in the series: methylamine, diethylamine, diethylamino ethanol and triethylamine. A major part of this effect was attributed to an opposing electroosmotic flow (EOF) resulting from a positively-charged coating of the capillary surface with the amine cations in the BGE via a dynamic equilibrium. The amine cations also interact in solution with the analyte ions to reduce their electrophoretic mobilities. Migration times of anilines could be varied systematically over a broad range according to the BGE amine cation selected. Excellent separations of seven closely-related anilines were obtained with the new system. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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