Chapter 10.9 Palaeoenvironmental and Geochemical Models from an Early Proterozoic Carbonate Succession in South Africa

  • Eriksson K
  • Truswell J
  • Button A
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Abstract

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the aspects of the Malmani Dolomite, Campbell Rand Dolomite, and Kuruman and Penge Iron Formations. It discusses the various palaeoenvironmental models, based on which, it is possible to recognize four major lithologic associations—namely, banded iron formation, limestones with ferruginous dolomites, limestones with iron-poor dolomites, and recrystallized dolomites and chert. The limestones and ferruginous dolomites are those, which constitute the barrier to the iron formation lagoon, the carbonates which formed immediately seawards of the barrier, and the intertidal facies at Boetsap. The deepest subtidal carbonates are iron-poor pure dolomites; those, which have been interpreted as shallower subtidal sediments at Boestsap are also iron-poor and contain limestone remnants; these are grouped together as limestones and iron-poor dolomites. The preserved stratigraphic thickness in the Transvaal is composed almost wholly of recrystallized dolomites with chert and iron-poor dolomites with large domes, the other two associations only appearing at the top of the succession along the northwest margin of the basin In contrast to Transvaal, lithologies in the Northern Cape are almost devoid of recrystallized dolomites and cherts..

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Authors

  • K. A. Eriksson

  • J. F. Truswell

  • A. Button

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