Fortification of Cheddar cheese with vitamin D was tested using three different addition methods to cheesemilk at a final concentration of 400 IU L-1: addition of a commercial water-soluble emulsion of vitamin D (Vitex D); homogenization of crystalline liposoluble vitamin D in a portion of cream used for cheesemilk standardization; and addition of water-soluble vitamin D entrapped in multilamellar liposomes (Prolipo-Duo(TM)). The recovery of vitamin D in cheese curd, losses in whey and stability of vitamin D during cheese making and ripening over a 7 months period were measured. The method of vitamin D addition did not affect significantly the composition of experimental cheeses (protein, fat, moisture and salt), which was not different from that of control cheeses made without vitamin D. The recovery of vitamin D in cheese was significantly higher when vitamin D was entrapped in liposomes (61.5 ± 5.4%) than for vitamin D homogenized in cream (40.5 ± 2.2%) and for Vitex D (42.7 ± 1.7%). Vitamin D concentration in experimental cheeses was stable for 3-5 months of ripening depending on the addition method, but decreased thereafter, particularly with liposome-encapsulated vitamin D. Vitamin D concentration after 7 months of ripening was very similar for all experimental cheeses, and corresponded to approximately 60, 89 and 84% of that measured after production in cheese fortified by vitamin D in liposomes, cream, and Vitex D, respectively. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Banville, C., Vuillemard, J. C., & Lacroix, C. (2000). Comparison of different methods for fortifying Cheddar cheese with vitamin D. International Dairy Journal, 10(5–6), 375–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(00)00054-6