Four different methods for preparing PIXE targets from biological samples were compared. All methods involved doping with an internal standard and preparing target deposits of 1-4 mg/cm2on a thin substrate. In method A targets were prepared using powdered freeze-dried material. Methods B and C both included a low temperature ashing preconcentration step and method D involved an acid digestion in a teflon bomb. The procedures were applied to reference materials (e.g. NBS standards) and to "real" samples such as human kidneys and a liver, which had been analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). For most elements good agreement was observed between the results of the four target preparation methods and the reference values or the NAA results. Exceptions, however, were Br, Se and Cd, which were lost in some methods. The detection limits in the different methods are compared. © 1984.
Maenhaut, W., De Reu, L., & Vandenhaute, J. (1984). Comparison of different sample and target preparation procedures for PIXE analysis of biological materials. Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, 3(1–3), 135–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-583X(84)90350-1