Proton data from the GOES 6 and 7 satellites and heavy ion data from the IMP-8 satellite have been compared to the expected results of Nymmik's new model for solar particle event fluences. This model calculates the energy spectra of ions for protons through nickel for solar particle events, based upon the observed proton integral fluence above 30 MeV. Based upon 27 observed proton events of solar cycle 22, and three large historical events, with integral fluences above 30 MeV of greater than 106particles/cm2, a reasonable agreement with model predictions is seen for more than half of the events. However, several events show a marked departure from the model predictions, leading to the conclusion that there may exist more than a single class of event, or that it may be necessary to include additional parameters within the model, such as solar disk position of the source flare, or height of disturbance in the solar corona. Data for heavy ions, (oxygen and iron), were limited to a total of six solar particle events, of which only two occurred in solar cycle 22. The agreement between data and the model predictions appeared to be quite good, however this agreement was sensitively dependent upon the value taken for the proton fluence above 30 MeV.
Cleghorn, T. F., & Badhwar, G. D. (1999). Comparison of the SPE model with proton and heavy ion data. Radiation Measurements, 30(3), 251–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(99)00053-0