The progressive deformation of axi-symmetric cylindrical rods of different initial free lengths to diameter ratios and materials into shaped heads: triangular, square, hexagonal and octagonal shapes is simulated using the stress equilibrium technique based on slab method of analysis. The mechanics of the heading process, before the flash sets-in, in each case, is analysed in two stages: upset forging and filling of the shaped die cavities. The theoretical results estimated compare very well with the experimental and those calculated previously by the authors using the upper bound elemental technique. © 1995.
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