211 cases of temporomandibular joint pain/dysfunction syndrome treated by condylotomy were traced. 172 operations were investigted by questionnaire and 119 patients examined clinically and radiographically. Operated patients constituted less than 3% of all patients with the syndrome. 91% were cured or improved by surgery. The anatomical structure involved in the technique and operative complications, are discussed. Principal effects of surgery were to produce an increase in radiographic joint space and shortening of the ramus with minimal long term change in the position of the condylar head from its postoperative position. The clinical findings as regards remodelling were confirmed and investigated histologically in a primate model. The mechanisms of pain production in the temporomandibular joint pain/dysfunction syndrome are discussed. © 1975 Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.
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