In temperate regions biting flies such as members of the Culicidae, Ceratopogonidae, and Simuliidae, are normally controlled by anti-larval methods, and these can conveniently be divided into three major categories-mechanical, biological, and chemical. In methods of the first category, larval habitats are ecologically altered or eradicated and control is usually permanent. Although biological control appears attractive it has had very limited success with biting flies: it necessitates a good knowledge of the ecology and interrelationships of the pest species and their associated fauna. Most control measures consequently rely on the repetitive use of insecticides. Organochlorines (chlorinated hydrocarbons) are still commonly used, despite the danger of their accumulation in food-chains. Owing to their rapid degradation, the organophosphates are more acceptable to most conservationists, and their replacement of the more persistent insecticides is welcomed. Because it is recognized that insecticidal measures will for some time remain the principal method of controlling biting flies, the use of chemicals that appear to present few hazards to wildlife, such as Paris Green and Abate, should be encouraged. The indiscriminate routine application of insecticides, however, is condemned. © 1971.
Service, M. W. (1971). Conservation and the control of biting flies in temperate regions. Biological Conservation, 3(2), 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(71)90012-7