An experiment was conducted to examine causal attributions for accidents by accident victims and accident witnesses. It emerges that accident witnesses attribute first to the victim, whatever their severity; while accident victims attribute to themselves only mild accidents and attribute a more important causal role to bad luck than witnesses do. This result is compared with the divergences observed by Jones and Nisbett (1971) between the actor and the observer. In addition, involvement in an accident appears to be a defensive attribution factor.
Rémi Kouabenan, D. (1985). Degree of involvement in an accident and causal attribution. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 7(3), 187–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-6349(85)90004-5