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As discovery chemistry produces increased numbers of potential drug compounds, the use of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) properties is becoming increasingly important in the drug selection and promotion process. A computer simulation model has been developed and validated to predict ADME outcomes, such as rate of absorption, extent of absorption, etc. using a limited number of in vitro data inputs. The oral bioavailability of ganciclovir in dogs and humans was simulated using a physiologically based model that utilized many biopharmaceutically relevant parameters, such as the concentration of ganciclovir in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon at various dose levels and solubility values. The simulations were run and compared to dog and human in vivo data. The simulation results demonstrated that the low bioavailability of ganciclovir is limited by compound solubility rather than permeability due to partitioning as previously speculated. This technology provides a breakthrough in in silico prediction of absorption and with its continued development and improvement, will aid drug discovery and development scientists to produce better pharmaceutical products. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.




Norris, D. A., Leesman, G. D., Sinko, P. J., & Grass, G. M. (2000). Development of predictive pharmacokinetic simulation models for drug discovery. Journal of Controlled Release, 65(1–2), 55–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-3659(99)00232-1

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