IQ, a heterocyclic aromatic amine which is formed during the frying of meat, was prepared by chemical synthesis. Its genotoxic potential was studied in bacteria. Drosophila and in mice. A mutagenic effect of IQ (frameshift induction) was detected in Salmonella typhimurium in experiments without metabolic activation; this effect was several orders of magnitude lower than that observed in the presence of an activation system. Ames tests with liver-homogenate S9 fraction from PCB-induced mice and rats confirmed the high mutagenic potency of IQ metabolites (Kasai et al., 1980a). Comparative studies on diagnostic Salmonella strains revealed that the high frameshift-inducing activity is independent of the plasmid pkM101; it is, however, greatly reduced by an intact excision-repair system for DNA lesions. The mutagenic activity of the metabolite(s) formed in vitro by S9 mix has a half-life of ca. 14 min. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, IQ induced when used at sublethal concentrations, X-chromosomal recessive lethal mutations in male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In mice, tests were performed to detect somatic mutations: chromosomal anomalies (micronuclei) in bone marrow, and gene mutations (affecting coat pigmentation) in mice exposed to IQ in utero. No genotoxic effects were observed in these assays. However, the formation of mutagenic metabolites in the liver of IQ-treated mice was unequivocally demonstrated in host-mediated assays using Salmonella as mutagen probes in mice. The data demonstrate genotoxic activity of IQ in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The possible reasons for the different response of mammalian systems in vivo and the Salmonella system are discussed. © 1985.
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