The chorio-allantoic grafts analysed were prepared from avian proventricular endoderm combined with its own or pancreatic mesenchyme and from re-associated pancreatic layers. Intestine developed ectopically in some grafts: in these, endocrine cells typical of intestine differentiated irrespective of the source of the endoderm or mesenchyme. In addition, endocrine cells inappropriate for the surrounding histology were detected in small numbers in grafts of all categories. Clearly it is not the mesenchyme that is responsible but perhaps some aspect of the procedure, which may relate to stressful stimuli thought to provoke intestinal metaplasia. The differentiation of inappropriate cells aids in understanding the occurrence of ectopic endocrine tumours. © 1988.
Andrew, A., Rawdon, B. B., & Kramer, B. (1988). Differentiation of intestinal and ectopic endocrine cells from avian gastric and pancreatic endoderm. Cell Differentiation, 22(2), 135–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6039(88)90025-5